Powders are currently not well enough understood to easily enable consistent manufacture via powder processing routes. Granular media are complex non-equilibrium systems; their collective behaviours and interactions with external forces and stimuli are highly non-linear.

The traditional descriptors for powders - morphology, surface area, particle size distribution, compressability and flowability – all fail to adequately describe their overall complexity as a system. Our focus here is on our powder starting materials and developing a systems level approach to describing their behaviour.