Paper: Pore evolution mechanisms during directed energy deposition additive manufacturing

Authors: Kai Zhang, Yunhui Chen, Sebastian Marussi, Xianqiang Fan, Maureen Fitzpatrick, Shishira Bhagavath, Marta Majkut, Bratislav Lukic, Kudakwashe Jakata, Alexander Rack, Martyn A. Jones, Junji Shinjo, Chinnapat Panwisawas, Chu Lun Alex Leung & Peter D. Lee

Publication: Nature Communications

Porosity in directed energy deposition (DED) deteriorates mechanical performances of components, limiting safety-critical applications. However, how pores arise and evolve in DED remains unclear. Here, we reveal pore evolution mechanisms during DED using in situ X-ray imaging and multi-physics modelling. We quantify five mechanisms contributing to pore formation, migration, pushing, growth, removal and entrapment: (i) bubbles from gas atomised powder enter the melt pool, and then migrate circularly or laterally; (ii) small bubbles can escape from the pool surface, or coalesce into larger bubbles, or be entrapped by solidification fronts; (iii) larger coalesced bubbles can remain in the pool for long periods, pushed by the solid/liquid interface; (iv) Marangoni surface shear flow overcomes buoyancy, keeping larger bubbles from popping out; and (v) once large bubbles reach critical sizes they escape from the pool surface or are trapped in DED tracks. These mechanisms can guide the development of pore minimisation strategies.

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